The Issue of Hypertension - Prevention & Cure
News Desk, News Nation 360 : Hypertension or high blood pressure is a common ailment but can lead to serious consequences and even sudden death if not controlled. Chronic hypertension affects most of the vital organs and is the commonest cause of heart attack, stroke and kidney disease. Dr M Shahnawaz Purkait, the Medical Superintendent of Techno India Dama Healthcare and Medical Centre states a few guidelines for managing Borderline and mild hypertension : Maintaining proper weight as per BMI, Having a healthy diet that is low in salt, potassium and animal proteins, Moderate physical activity /exercise like walking, cycling, swimming or freehand and yoga 20 to 30 minutes 3 to 5 times a week, Smoking cessation, Reducing caffeine, tea, alcohol, Adequate sleep ( 6 to 8 hrs ) at night, Avoiding a stressful lifestyle and spending some time in meditation, Regular BP check-up after reaching 40 yrs age, Following all prescribed medications and taking special care if one is Diabetic or Obese or having a family history of hypertension, Special care during pregnancy when the BP can shoot up. Dr Soham Basak, Consultant, Cornea Department of Disha Eye Hospitals throws light on the impact of Hypertension on the Human Eyes and the imperative steps to deal with this problem : Hypertensive retinopathy - uncontrolled high blood pressure over a long time can cause changes in the blood vessels supplying the retina or the delicate screen at the back of eyes. The vessel damage can lead to fluid leakage and causes oedema of the retinal tissues and sometimes small haemorrhages. This can lead to blurred vision, Retinal vein and artery occlusion - commonly referred to as a stroke of the retina. Hypertension is one of the leading risk factors leading to these conditions. In retinal vein occlusion there is a rupture of the retinal blood vessels leading to blood collection in the retina, whereas, in retinal artery occlusion, the retina is damaged due to diminished blood circulation. Both need urgent treatment - retinal injections, lasers and even surgery in rare situations, Ischemic optic neuropathy - the nerve connecting the eye to the brain is affected in this condition. High blood pressure can lead to reduced blood flow to this nerve leading to irreversible vision loss, Hypertension is also responsible for other sets and worsening of diabetic eye disease, Subconjunctival haemorrhage - sudden changes in blood pressure can cause the delicate vessels of the white of the eye to rupture and leak blood in the surrounding area. This can cause bright redness of the eyes which is often alarming, but this is a relatively harmless and self-resolving condition. The redness resolves within 2 to 4 weeks with little to no treatment, Lastly, hypertension is also a risk factor in the progression of glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (weakening of the retinal cells due to old age). These are again due to the effect high blood pressure has on altering blood flow to the delicate and microscopic blood vessels of the eye. According to Dr Abhinay Tibdewal, Consultant, Interventional Cardiologist of ILS Hospitals, a critical step in preventing and treating high blood pressure is a healthy lifestyle. One can lower blood pressure with the following lifestyle changes : Losing weight if someone is overweight or obese, Quitting smoking. Tobacco damages the walls of blood vessels and hardens arteries. Both need to be in good shape while one controls blood pressure, Following the DASH eating plan, which stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. It focuses on vegetables, fruits, whole grains fish, poultry, nuts, and beans. High-potassium foods, like avocados, bananas, dried fruits, tomatoes, and black beans, get a big thumbs-up. This plan keeps sugary drinks, sweets, and high-fat meats and dairy products at a minimum, Reducing the amount of sodium in the diet to less than 1,500 milligrams a day if someone has high blood pressure; healthy adults should try to limit their sodium intake to no more than 2,300 milligrams a day (about 1 teaspoon of salt). Many processed foods have a lot of salt in them. For instance, soups, condiments, and tomato sauce can have as much as 75% of the total amount of salt one needs each day, Keeping a healthy weight for the age and height is key. If someone is overweight or have obesity, they can lower their blood pressure by losing just 5 pounds, Limiting alcohol to two drinks a day for men, and one drink a day for women. One drink is an ounce of alcohol, 5 ounces of wine, or 12 ounces of beer, Reducing stress. Think about stressful areas of life and take steps to change them. Consider talking to a counsellor, learning meditation or anger-control techniques, or getting regular massages. Hypertension is broadly classified into two types - primary and secondary. The primary form occurs solely because of lifestyle and genetic makeup, while the secondary form arises due to chronic illnesses like kidney or endocrine disorders. Hypertension classification (based on office BP measurements) Normal BP SBP < 130 and DBP < 85, High-normal BP SBP 130–139 and/or DBP 85–89, Grade 1 hypertension SBP 140–159 and/or DBP 90–99, Grade 2 hypertension SBP>160 and or DBP>100. Most people with high blood pressure have no symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels. One can have high blood pressure for years without any symptoms. A few people with high blood pressure may have : Headaches, Shortness of breath, and Nosebleeds. However, these symptoms aren't specific. They usually don't occur until high blood pressure has reached a severe or life-threatening stage. A critical step in preventing and treating high blood pressure is a healthy lifestyle. One can lower blood pressure with the following lifestyle changes : Losing weight, Quitting smoking, and Following the DASH eating plan, which stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. It focuses on vegetables, fruits, whole grains fish, poultry, nuts, and beans. High-potassium foods like avocados bananas, dried fruits, tomatoes and black beans, get a big thumbs-up. This plan keeps sugary drinks, sweets, and high-fat meats and dairy products at a minimum.
Report : Anustup Kundu